The Arctic Ocean presents many difficulties for marine life. The temperatures are around freezing. Ice covers lots of the surface of this ocean. There is constant sunlight in the summer and no sunlight in the winter, which limits photosynthesis to only half the year.
One of the major abiotic factors to any biome is the sun. Sunlight provides energy for many organisms. It is also very important to organisms that go through photosynthesis.
You may not think about it, but ice is a major abiotic factor in the Arctic Ocean. Without ice many organisms such as polar bear would be left without a place to live in the Arctic. Organisms such as seals would be left without a safe spot to hide from predators.
In the Arctic Ocean, the circulation of the depth is very different to the circulation on the surface. All the water coming from the North Atlantic rarely comes back because it cannot escape the current. Atlantic waters that dive down into the vast boreal basin always show temperature readings above 0°C and salinity higher than 35%. Currents are an important abiotic factor because it helps organisms survive.